1781 - Articles of Confederation drafted

President George Washington

      This imperfect and deeply flawed arrangement sought to create "a single child by thirteen separate fathers.'  Lessons from this failure would eventually guide the wisest founders (James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, Benjamin Franklin, James Wilson, John Adams and George Washtington) to argue forcefully for a centralized federal government during the Constitutional Convention, six years later.

Benjamin Franklin.jpg      The Articles of Confederation gave the Continental Congress the exclusive authority to make treaties and manage affairs with Indian tribes living inside state boarders and beyond (the same claim made by King George III in 1763).  These same powers would later be placed in the hands of the U.S. Congress by the ratified Constitution.