Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made
in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be
made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the
supreme Law of the land."
Article VI, clause 2, of the
United States Constitution
and 1871, the United States entered into more than five hundred
treaties with American Indian nations. Of those, some 371
compacts and agreements were ratified by the United States Senate,
as require by the U.S. Constitution. Each of these treaties
is protected as the 'supreme law of the land' under Article VI,
Clause two, of the national charter.
Below, you will
find a number of important treaties cited by the date they were
negotiated, with a brief summary of what is covered in the
treaty. Each citation is linked to the complete text of the
treaty, as compiled by Charles J. Kappler, and printed by the
Government Printing Office in Washington D.C. Also,
many of these treaty documents are on file in the National
To view a complete list of Indian treaties by tribal name,
To view a complete list of Indian treaties by date, click
A Partial list of Treaties with American Indian
(First Treaty Era)
1778 - Treaty with the Delawares
Summary: A treaty of peace and perpetual friendship in which all
offenses are mutually forgiven. In case of war, each party
will assist the other. The United States will have free
passage to forts r towns of their enemies, and such warriors as can
be spared will join the troops of the United States. Neither
part will inflict punishment without an impartial trial, nor
protect criminal fugitives. The United States guarantees all
territorial rights as bound by former treaties. The tribes
will have representation in Congress (on certain conditions)
1784 - Treaty with the Six Nations
Summary: Hostages to be given till prisoners are delivered
up. Lands and boundaries are secured, and annuities offered
to the Indians for peace and friendship.
1785 - Treaty with the Wyandot
Summary: Tribe acknowledge protection of the United States,
mutually agreed upon boundaries, and no citizen of the U.S. will
settle on Indian owned lands. Indians recognize the U.S.
title to certain lands. Robbers and murderers are to be
delivered to United States.
1786 - Treaty with the Chickasaw
Summary: Peace and friendship between the Chickasaw and the U.S.
will be perpetual. Indians restore prisoners and property and
acknowledge the protection of the United States, which recognizes
Indian boundaries. No citizen of the U.S. will ever settle on
Indian lands, and Indians promise to deliver up criminals, while
whites committing crimes against Indians will be punished.
Retaliation will be restrained, and the U.S. will regulate
1789 - Treaty with the Six Nations
Summary: Reffirms the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, though the Mohawks
are excepted from this agreement. Old boundary is confirmed
to both the U.S. and the Six Nations. Peace and friendship is
renewed, and robberies and murders will be punished according to
1791 - Treaty (of Holston) with the
Summary: Peace and friendship will be perpetual between the
Cherokee and the U.S. Prisoners will be exchanged,
boundaries of homelands confirmed, and the U.S. will regulate
trade. No U.S. citizen can settle on Indian land, nor hunt on
the same. Citizens of the U.S. committing crimes in Indian
territory will be punished. Animosities are to cease, and the
U.S. will give the tribe presents upon ratification.
1794 - Treaty with the Oneida
Summary: $5,000 to be distributed for past losses.
Mills to be built by the U.S., and millers to be provided.
$1,000 given to build a church, and Indians relinquish further
1796 - Treaty with the Seven Nations of
Summary: Cession of lands to the State of New York in
consideration for payments, and setting aside permanent Indian
1796 - Treaty with the Creeks
Summary: Boundary lines to be run, trading posts to be
established, and chiefs to attend the running the line with
Spain. Boundary line to be established between Choctaws and
Chickasaws, prisoners to be given up, and presents to be given to
1797 - Treaty with the Mohawk
Summry: Agents of New York to Pay the Mohawk deputies $1,000 and
expenses, while Mohawks cede all right to lands, forever.
1802 - Treaty with the Seneca
Summary: Cession of lands, and boundaries described.
1803 - Treaty with the Kaskaskia
Summary: Land cession to the United States, Indian land
boundaries fixed, while the U.S. takes the Kaskaskias under their
1804 - Treaty with the Piankeshaw
Summary: Cession of land to the U.S. with acknowledgment
of the right of the Kaskasias to sell certain lands. Annuity
to be paid for ten years.
1804 - Treaty with the Sauk and Foxes
Summary: Indians are taken under the protection of the United
States, and boundaries of tribal lands are fixed. Annuities
are to be delivered to the tribes every year, and intruders on
Indian lands to be removed. Indians may hunt on lands ceded
to U.S. (usufructory rights); trading houses to be established by
1805 - Treaty with the Delawares
Summary: Delawares agree to relinquish their claim to land
in exchange for a permanent annuity to be given to them and the
Miamies, who, it is agreed, will not part with any of their
territory in Ohio without consent of all parties.
1805 - Treaty with the Choctaw
Summary: Cession of lands to the U.S., creation of a
reservation, and payment to certain Indians for past services
1805 - Treaty with the Sioux
Summary: Small cession of land on the St. Croix river for the
purpose of establishing military posts, granting full sovereignty
and power over those districts forever, in exchange for $2,000 and
goods and merchandise as they shall choose. The Indians
retain their rights to hunt and fish "as they have formerly done,
without any other exception" (usufructory rights)
1808 - Treaty with the Osage
Summary: A fort is to be built and annuities will be kept
there, along with a blacksmith who will be furnished by the
U.S. Merchandise to be delivered and money paid once
boundaries are established. Lines to be run by the U.S., and
hunting grounds will be preserved and protected by the U.S.
Osages promise not to supply arms to Indians not friendly to the
1808 - Treaty with the Chippewa
Summary: A tract of land is granted for an easement for the
purpose of building a road. Lines of boundaries to be run by
the U.S.. The privilege of hunting and fishing on lands ceded
is maintained by the trubes, and the Indians acknowledge the
protection of the U.S.
1809 - Treaty with the Kickapoo
Summary: Kickapoos agree to second article of treaty of Sept.
30, 1809, including a cession of land to the U.S. in exchange for
1814 - Treaty with the Creeks
Summary: Cession of territory by the Creeks to pay for the
expenses they incurred in the war of 1812. Intercourse with
British and Spanish to cease. Establishment of military
posts, and all property taken to be surrendered. The prophets
and instigators of the war to be given up, and supplies of corn
will be presented to the Creeks. New boundaries will be
drawn, and peace will be permanent.
1815- Treaty with the Potawatomi
Summary: Injuries will be forgiven, and peace and
friendship between the Potawatomi and the U.S. will be
perpetuals. Prisoners to be delivered up, and former treaty
to be recognized and confirmed.
1815- Treaty with the Teton
Summary: Injuries between parties, forgiven, perpetual peace and
friendship begins with this treaty, which also recognizes the
protection of the U.S.
1815 - Treaty with the Yankton Sioux
Summary: Injuries are forgiven, peace and friendship
begins with the protection of Indian people by the U.S.
1815 - Treaty with the Makah
Summary: Injuries forgiven, perpetual peace and friendship
recognized, and protection of the U.S. acknowledged.
1815 - Treaty with the Kansa
Summary: Injuries forgiven on both sides, peace and friendship
to be perpetual, and the protection of the U.S. acknowledged.
1816 - Treaty with the Cherokee
Summary: Cession of land by Cherokees to the state of South
Carolina, and bounds of the cession. U.S. to engage South
Carolina for a payment of $5000 in consideraton.
1816 - Treaty with the Ottawa
Summary: Cession of land to the U.S., consideration given,
claims relinquished by the U.S., peace and friendship affirmed
1817 - Treaty with the Menominee
Summary: Injuries forgiven, perpetual peace and friendship
promised, former land cessions and treaties confirmed, prisoners to
be delivered up, and the protection of the U.S. acknowledged.
1817 - Treaty with the Oto
Summary: Injuries forgiven, peace and friendship exchanged,
protection of U.S. acknowledged.
1817 - Treaty with the Ponca
Summary: Injuries forgiven, peace and friendship exchanged,
protection of the U.S. acknowledged.
1818 - Treaty with the Quapaw
Summary: Protection of the U.S. acknowledged with the cession of
lands and the creation of a reservation. The Quapaws reserve
usufructory rights to hunt and fish in ceded territory, and no
white people may settle on reserved lands. Payment in goods
will be made for ceded lands, no private revenge for injuries by
individuals; offenders will be delivered up for punishment.
1818 Treaty with the Grand Pawnee
Summary: Injuries forgiven, perpetual peace and friendship
established and protection of the U.S. acknowledged.
1818 - Treaty with the Osage
Summary: Land cession to the United States, as defined, and the
U.S. to pay for losses sustained by the Osage.
1818 - Treaty with the Miami (removal)
Summary: Cession of lands by the Miamis and establishment
of a reservation for the exclusive use of the Miami people.
Miami assent to the cession by the Kickapoo in consideration for
payment made to the Miami by U.S.. A gristmill, sawmill,
etc., will be provided to the Miami by the U.S., in addition to 160
bushes of salt annually.
1823 - Treaty with the Florida Tribes of Indians
Summary: Indians confined to their homelands. U.S.
to take Florida Indians under their care, and guarantee peaceable
possession of the district assigned to them. Corn and meat to
be supplied for one year and an agent will live among them.
Indians to prevent fugitive slaves from taking shelter.
1825 - Treaty with the Hunkpapa Band of the
Summary: Supremacy of the United States acknowledged on
condition that the U.S. receive them under their protection.
Places for trade to be designated by the President and chiefs to
exert themselves to recover stolen property. No guns to be
furnished by them to enemies of the United States.
1825 - Treaty with the Cheyenne
Summary: Supremacy of the U.S. acknowledged, and places for
trade to be designated by the president. Chiefs to exert
themselves to recover stolen property, and no guns to be furnished
to any tribe hostile to the U.S.
1825 - Treaty with the Choctaw (removal)
Summary: Lands ceded to the United States, $6,000 to be paid to
the Choctaws, annually, forever. Provisions for Choctaws who
may desire to remain on their homelands, and payment for services
rendered in the Pensacola campaign. A agent and blacksmith
for Choctaws west of the Mississippi, friendship perpetuated.
1828 - Treaty with the Western Cherokee
Summary: Western boundary of Arkansas define, and territory
guaranteed to Cherokee by the U.S.. United States to run
survey lines, and Cherokees to surrender lands in Arkansas within
fourteen months. Cost of emigration to be borne by the United
1832 - Treaty with the Chickasaw (removal)
Summary: Cession of lands to the United states, and ceded lands
to be surveyed; compensation to Chickasaws, and tribe to seek new
home west of the Mississippi. Surveyor-general to be
appointed, an preemption of rights to be granted by U.S.
Reduction of price for land, expenses of removal, Chickasaw fund,
annuities to chiefs, and list of reservations. No settlement
in Chickasaw country until land is sold.
1832 - Treaty with the Winnebago
Summary: Cession of land to the United States, and cession of
land by the United States. Annuity to the tribe for 278
years, and school to be established and supported by U.S.
Blacksmith shop provided along with rations of bread.
Winnebagoes not to hunt in country ceded.
1832 - Treaty with the Seminole (removal)
Summary: cession to the U.S. of lands in Florida, $15,400 to be
paid by the U.S. Blankets, annuities and a blacksmith to be
supplied. Cattle to be valued, demands for slaves to be
settled. Indians to remove within three years.
1835 - Treaty with the Cherokee (removal)
Summary: Cherokees to relinquish to the U.S. all of their
lands east of the Mississippi. Additional lands conveyed to
the nation, and Osage titles to reservations to be
extinguished. Missionary reservations to be paid for, lands
permanently ceded to the nation. Peace to be preserved,
congress may allow a delegate from the Cherokee nation, agents to
value improvements made by Cherokee, and President to make
investments in productive stock. Commutation of school fund,
provision respecting Cherokees averse to removal; settlement of
claims for former reservations, pensions to certain warriors,
Indians to remove in two years, preemption rights declared void,
expense of negotiations to be defrayed by the U.S.
1837 - Treaty with the Choctaw and
Summary: Chickasaw may form a district in the Choctaw country,
boundaries of district and payment for these privileges.
1838 - Treaty with the Iowa
Summary: Cession of land to the U.S. by the Iowa, and
consideration therefore. U.S. to erect ten houses at such
places as the Indians may direct.
(Second Treaty Era)
1848 - Treaty with the Pawnee, Grand, Loups,
Summary: Description of lands ceded to the U.S., and payment of
goods in consideration for land. United States to use timber
on Wood river, while friendship and fidelity are pledged by both
1848 - Treaty with the Navajo
Summary: Navajo agree to be under the jurisdiction of the
U.S., and perpetual peace will exist between both
parties. The Navajo to deliver to the U.S. the murderer
or murderers of M. Garcia. Captives and stolen property to be
delivered to the U.S. by Oct. 9, 1850. U.S. citizens
committing outrages against Navajos to be subjected to the
penalties of the law, and whites are granted free passage through
their territory. Military posts and agencies to be
established. To be binding after signed, and to receive a
liberal construction. Donations, presents, and implements to
be given to the tribes for making this agreement.
1851 - Treaty of Fort Laramie (Horse Creek)
Summary: Peace to be observed between all the tribes and the
U.S., roads may be established and Indians to be protected from
whites by the U.S. Establishes boundaries of homelands for
Sioux, Grosventre, Mandan, Arikara, Assiniboine, Blackfoot, Crow,
Cheyenne and Arapaho (1.1 million square miles) and recognizes
usufructory rights to hunt on traditional homelands. Head
chiefs to be chosen by each tribe, and annuities will be given for
making peace and friendship.
1852 - Treaty with the Apache
Summary: Peace to exist between the tribe and the U.S, and the
Apache will not assist other tribes in hostilities. Good
treatment of U.S. citizens, and cases of aggression will be
referred to government. Persons injuring the Apaches to be
tried and punished; military posts to be established, and presents
to be given to the Apaches.
1853 - Treaty with the Comanche (Thomas Fitzpatrick,
Summary: Peace and friendship to exist with the U.S., and with
other tribes. Whites given safe passage through Indian
country, captives to be restored, and compensations to be
made. $18,000 per annum to be paid to the tribes if peace is
1854 - Treaty with the Rogue River
Summary: Cession of lands in Oregon; Indians to occupy a portion
of the ceded land, temporarily; permanent home to be selected, and
payment for cessions; agreements to protect travelers, and
additional payments on removal; redress for individual
1854 - Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya
Summary: Cession of lands to the United States, with a
reservation for a residents, and removal from said reserve if it
should become expedient; payment for said cessions, and payment for
removal; survey and allotment of the reserve, and power of future
states over restrictions are limited; annuities not to be taken for
debt; provisions against intemperance, roads may be constructed,
and merchandise may be part payment of annuities.
1855 - Treaty with the Wallawalla, Cayuse
Summary: Cession of lands, and established boundaries.
Tribes to settle there in a year, but no whites permitted.
Rights and privileges secure to the Indians, payments made by the
U.S., in addition to building a sawmill, schools, mechanics shops,
and employing mechanics and teachers; build homes for head
1855 - Treaty with the Nez Perce (removal)
Summary: Cession of lands to the U.S., and boundaries
established for reservations. No whites to reside on
reservation, and improvements to be made by U.S. Roads may be
made; rights and privleges secured to the Indians. The U.S.
promises to build schools, a sawmill, and a hospital.
Annuities cannot be used to pay debts of individuals; tribes to
preserve friendly relations and not to make war except in
1855 - Treaty with the Flatheads
Summary: Cession of land to the U.S., and boundaries
established for reservations. No whites allowed to live
there, though roads may be made through reservations. Rights
and privileges of Indians, and payments to be made by U.S., which
promises to build schools, mechanic shop, and to pay head chiefs a
salary. Guaranty of reservation against certain claims of the
Hudson Bay Company. Bitter Root Valley to be surveyed and
portions set aside for reservation. These lands not open for
1855 Treaty with the Blackfeet
Summary: Peace to exist with the U.S. and other
tribes. Blackfoot territory recognized as common hunting
ground, and no settlements to be made thereon. How to enter
and leave hunting grounds. Roads, telegraph lines, and
military posts, may be established. Annual payment to be made
to Blackfoot nation. War not to be made on other tribes
except in self-defense, criminals to be surrendered; provision
against intoxication or the introduction of ardent spirits.
1858 - Treaty with the Ponca
Summary: Cession of all lands to the U.S., and reservation
boundaries established. U.S. promises to protect the Ponca
people from depredations by whites, to maintain schools, and
provide saw and grist mills. Provisions made for half breeds,
and scrip for 160 aces of land to issue to each. Whites not
to reside on reservation, and lawful residents of lands hereby
ceded may enter 160 acres at $1.25 per acre. Ponca to
maintain friendly relations, to pay for depredations, not to make
war, and to surrender offenders.
1863 - Treaty with the Western Shoshone
Summary: Pease established, depredations to cease; routs
of travel established for whites, and military posts or stations
approved. Telegraph lines and overland stage lines approved,
as is a railway. Boundaries of western bands of Shoshoni
established. Provisions made for damages; tribe agrees to the
U.S. building roads and establishing military posts. Grants
of land are made to tribes in reparation for outrages against
1865 - Treaty with the Cheyenne and Arapaho
Summary: Establishes perpetual peace with the U.S.;
hostilities to be settled by arbitration, and no whites to settle
on Indian lands. Indians not to camp within 10 miles of white
settlements, and claims to other lands are relinquished.
Annuities for forty years, when to be delivered, and amount.
1867 - Treaty with the Kiowa, Comanche, and
Summary: The Apaches agree to become incorporated with the Kiowa
and Comanche. Annuities, etc., to be shared by the Apache;
annual appropriation increased. Apache promise to keep the
peace and to give up certain rights.
1868 - Treaty with the Sioux-Brule, Oglala, Miniconjou,
Summary: War to cease and peace to be kept. Offenders
against the Indians to be arrested, and wrongdoers against the
whites to be punished. Census to be taken; appropriation to
continue for thirty years'; Presents for crops, U.S. to
furnish physician, teachers; military posts and roads to be
1868 - Treaty with the Crows
Summary: Peace and friendship will be maintained on both sides;
offenders among the whites to be arrested and punished; Indians to
be given up to the U.S. authorities; reservation boundaries
established; children between 6 and 16 to attend school; duty of
agent, schoolhouse and teachers; seeds and agricultural implements;
instruction in farming; annual appropriation in money for ten
years; a cow and oxen to each family.
1868 - Treaty with the Nez Perce
Summary: Reservation boundaries, allotments approved, timber to
be protected, and money for schools.