1826 - Indian land cessions

A map of Indian land cessions in the south during the first 'removal era.'

        By 1826, the Cherokees had surrendered most of their lands in the Carolinas and Tennessee, holding onto their tribal capital of New Echota, in northwestern Georgia. 

        The Creeks, in turn, had surrendered their lands in southern Georgia and retained a homeland core in Alabama. 

        The Seminoles were in the process of losing territory in Florida.

        The Choctaws had also ceded most of their territory in Mississippi.

        The Chickasaws, once lords of most of Tennessee, Kentucky, and northern Alabama and Mississippi, had retreated to a small domain in northern Mississippi and northwestern Alabama.  

        The five 'Civilized Tribes' of the south were now left to make a last stand to preserve what little was left of their ancestral homelands.  Land hungry settlers, state legislators, and courts, ignored the U.S. Constitution and existing treaties, and were only to happy to force the Indians into exile in the new Indian Territory.