Portrait by Edward Curtis, 1908
(1851 - 1928)
I do not want the white man's offer of citizenship. I have lived a long life, and I have seen many of the Great White Fathers' promises vanish on the winds. I do not need the white man's government to tell me that I am free.
Revered chief, and judge of the Three Affiliated Tribes
A revered chief and father of Martin Cross,
Old Dog, photographed in 1909 by Edward Curtis, was born in 'the
old world' and died, in 1926, in an era of modernization that his
own parent's could not have imagined. He never spoke a word
of English, and when citizenship was offered him in 1922, he
declined, saying that he had never needed the white man's blessing
to make him a free man. Coincidentally, he was born in 1851,
the same year Four Bears travelled to Fort Laramie to negotiate the
treaty that is still in effect today.